The objective of the European Industrial Initiative (EII) on Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage (CCS) is to contribute to the development of the technology that will enable the application of CCS in all carbon intensive industrial sectors and to ensure its competitive cost for deployment by 2020-2025. The operational objectives of this EII include the final Investment decisions for up to 12 CCS demonstration projects should be taken by 2015, as well as a programme of knowledge-sharing between projects (https://www.ccsnetwork.eu).
All the main technology routes for carbon capture, post combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel, are to have pilot projects for demonstration. These pilot projects should improve the capture processes by reducing the cost of technology and the loss of efficiency. They should also contribute to improve the integration of capture technologies into industrial installations, and to increase the purity of the CO2 stream as required to manage risks in the transport and storage infrastructures.
The transport concepts should be further developed to increase operational reliability and safety, both through pipeline and ship. The pilot projects should also contribute to launch the core of a trans-European CO2 network.
Storage monitoring technologies and reporting procedures shall be validated and a consistent methodology for classification of storage reserves/capacity should be established. Finally, this industrial initiative should also evaluate the storage potential within the territory of the European Union, namely in deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas fields and “unmineable” coal layers. These sites and CO2 emission sources will be mapped out to enable the identification of potential pipeline trajectories connecting sources and sinks.
The operating costs of CCS will greatly depend on the price of coal and of Emission Unit Allowances under the European Emissions Trade Scheme. As an ending note, let us refer that one of the outcomes of the Durban conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was the inclusion of projects for carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations as eligible Clean Development Mechanism activities – a program which provides financial support for developing countries, under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
- CCS EII Implementation Plan 2010-2012, Zero Emissions Platform